Resources Policy Like many other low-carbon energy technologies, wind energy is currently at risk due to potential bottlenecks in its dependence on critical rare earth elements such as Nd, Pr, Dy, and Tb, which are used in permanent magnet synchronous generators.

This paper evaluates up-to-date substitution ideas for meeting a projected estimation of increase in total annual demand for rare earths, which is 1.7 times from 2015 to 2020.

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